Assessment of Microbial Contamination of Bacteria Isolates from Fermented Cassava (Gari) Sold at Samaru Market, Zaria, Kaduna State and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Isolated Bacteria

Ayokunnumi F. Obajuluwa1*, Isah B. Abubakar2, Josiah A. Onaolapo2
1Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria
2Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Corresponding Author: afobajuluwa@gmail.com; Tel: +234 8036207703
Recieved Date: July 29, 2020; Accepted Date: September 19, 2020; Published Date: 03 October 2020
Citation: Obajuluwa AF, Abubakar IB, Onaolapo JA. Assessment of Microbial Contamination of Bacteria Isolates from Fermented Cassava (Gari) Sold at Samaru Market, Zaria, Kaduna State and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Isolated Bacteria. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2020; 4(9):586-589.  https://doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v4i9.15
Copyright: © 2020 Obajuluwa et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
ABSTRACT

Fermented cassava is a staple food popularly consumed in Nigeria. It is normally sold in open markets in basins, open sacks and wheel barrows. Contamination of this food product is a potential source of public health hazard more especially when the product is consumed raw or merely soaked in cold water. The aims of this study were to assess the microbial contamination of gari sold in Samaru market, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria and determine the antibiotics susceptibility pattern of the bacteria isolated. Ten samples were collected from different sources and serially diluted. The diluted samples were plated on nutrient agar and MacConkey agar to determine the total viable bacteria counts and coliform counts, respectively. Antibiotics susceptibility testing was carried out using Kirby Bauer agar diffusion method according to Clinical Laboratory Standard International. 
The average total bacterial count was 5.20 x 104 CFU/g while the average coliform count was 2.62 x 104 CFU/g. The following bacterial contaminants were isolated from the samples: Staphylococcus aureus 15 (44.1%), Bacillus spp. 7 (20.6%), Escherichia coli 7 (20.6%), Pseudomonas spp. 3 (8.8%) and Salmonella spp. 2 (5.9%). The isolates were highly susceptible to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin, but highly resistant to beta lactam antibiotics used in the study. The presence of antibiotics resistant bacterial strains in gari sold in the market is a potential source of transmission of antibiotic resistant strains in the community which can lead to treatment failure of infections caused by such organisms. 

Keywords: Fermented cassava, Bacteria contamination, Antibiotics, Susceptibility testing
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