In Vitro Antimalarial and Cytotoxic Activities of Sauropus androgynus Leaves Extracts

Anisah Mahardiani, Suciati Suciati, Wiwied Ekasari*
Department of Pharmacognocy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya-Indonesia
Corresponding Author: wiwied-e@ff.unair.ac.id; Tel: +62315933150
Recieved Date: August 08, 2020; Accepted Date: September 25, 2020; Published Date: 03 October 2020
Citation: Mahardiani A, Suciati S, Ekasari W. In Vitro Antimalarial and Cytotoxic Activities of Sauropus androgynus Leaves Extracts.Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2020; 4(9):558-562.  https://doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v4i9.11
Copyright: © 2020 Mahardiani et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
ABSTRACT

Malaria is one of the tropical diseases that have worldwide implications, especially in developing countries. Medicinal plants have served as a potential source for the future of antimalarial drugs. The leaves of Sauropus androgynus is known for its  antibacterial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, and wound healing effects. The leaves of S. androgynus have been consumed as food for its nutritive values. However, the antimalarial compound(s) from its leaves has not been reported before. This research aims to investigate the in vitro antimalarial activities of the n-hexane, chloroform, and 96% ethanol extracts of S. androgynus leaves, as well as to study the cytotoxic activity of the extracts. The leaves of S. androgynus were successively extracted with n-hexane, chloroform, and 96% ethanol in order of increasing polarity. The antimalarial activity used Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain (chloroquine-sensitive). The cytotoxicity assay used Huh7it cells with tetrazolium based colorimetric method. After cell viability was performed, the cytotoxicity value can be determined. The chloroform, n-hexane, and 96% ethanol extracts showed antimalarial activity with IC50 values of 0.85 µg/mL, 1.23 µg/mL, and 1.88 µg/mL, respectively. On the other hand, the cytotoxic results of chloroform, n-hexane, and 96% ethanol extracts were 136.00 µg/mL, 766.56 µg/mL, and 896.07 µg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, the research indicates that the chloroform extract of S. androgynus leaves has potential for use as antimalarial agents.

Keywords: Sauropus androgynus, Plasmodium falciparum 3D7,  Antimalarial, Cytotoxic.
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