Design, Development and Evaluation of the Repellent Activity of Azadirachta indica Oil-Based Solid Lipid Microparticles against Aedes aegypti (Linn)

Chinekwu S. Nwagwu1, John D. N. Ogbonna1, Lotanna G. Nwobi2, Adaeze C. Echezona1, Chinenye N. Ugwu3, Ezinwanne N. Ezeibe3, Angela C. Ozioko3, Petra O. Nnamani3, Anthony A. Attama1
1Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu state, Nigeria
2Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu state, Nigeria
3Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu state, Nigeria

Corresponding Author: john.ogbonna@unn.edu.ng ; Tel: +2348063674303
Recieved Date: August 01, 2020; Accepted Date: August 25, 2020; Published Date: 28 August 2020
Citation: Nwagwu CS, Ogbonna JDN, Nwobi LG, Echezona AC, Ugwu CN, Ezeibe EN, Ozioko A, Nnamani PO, Attama AA. Design, Development and Evaluation of the Repellent Activity of Azadirachta indica Oil-Based Solid Lipid Microparticles against Aedes aegypti (Linn). Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2020; 4(8):471-478.  https://doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v4i8.24
Copyright: © 2020 Nwagwu et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
ABSTRACT

The use of repellents has shown to be a practical and economical way of preventing mosquito-transmitted diseases. The aim of the study was to design, formulate and characterize Azadirachta indica (neem) oil based solid lipid microparticulate (SLMs) creams and thereafter evaluate its repellent activity against the Aedes aegypti mosquito. The oil was extracted from fresh leaves of Azadirachta indica using a soxhlet apparatus. The solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) were prepared using hot homogenization method. The stability of the formulated SLMs creams was evaluated by measuring the pH and particle size at determined time intervals. The morphology, encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity, FTIR analysis, skin irritation ability and mosquito repellence of the SLMs were also determined. The SLMs composed of both spherical and non-spherical particles and exhibited a slight decrease in the pH and an increase in particle size over time.  The neem oil encapsulation efficiency of the SLMs were in the range 52 - 71% while loading capacity were between 2.6 and 10.3 g/100 g lipid. The Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy revealed no strong chemical interaction(s) between the oil and excipients. The SLMs formulations showed no sign of skin irritation and produced higher and more prolonged repellence activity than the unformulated oil but lower than the commercial mosquito repellent. The study successfully developed SLMs loaded with Azadirachta indica oil which significantly increased the mosquito repellent activity of the oil and thus represents a possible alternative to synthetic mosquito repellents.

Keywords: Solid lipid microparticles, Mosquito repellents, Aedes aegypti, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Lipid based drug delivery systems.
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