Effects of Carica papaya Seeds on Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Male Wistar Rats

Atakpa I. Attah*, Egbung G. Eneji, Itam E. Hogan
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Calabar,P.M.B 1115 Calabar, Nigeria
Corresponding Author: isaacatakpa@gmail.com; Tel: +234-8063305089
Recieved Date: July 31, 2020; Accepted Date: August 24, 2020; Published Date: 28 August 2020
Citation: Attah AI, Eneji EG, Hogan IE. Effects of Carica Papaya Seeds on Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Male Wistar Rats. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2020; 4(8):463-470.  https://doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v4i8.23
Copyright: © 2020 Attah et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
ABSTRACT

Acetaminophen is an analgesic drug used commonly in clinics. However, it causes acute liver failure with continuous overdose. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Carica papaya seeds on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats. 
Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control group (NC), positive control (PC), 1000 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of nine animals each. The PC, 1000 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg groups were given a dose of acetaminophen (2500 mg/kg b.w) orally, and after day three, three rats (n=3) were taken at random from each group and serum enzymes activity levels of Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine transaminase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were assessed to ascertain hepatotoxicity. Afterwards, rats were treated with Carica papaya seeds extract (1000 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg) for fourteen days. The rats were euthanized, plasma collected and analysed for biochemical parameters, while liver tissues were examined for histopathological changes.
There was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in ALT, gamma-glutamyl transferase (?-GT), globulin and reduction in Malondiadehyde.(MDA) concentrations in both 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg groups compared to the PC group. However, serum albumin, total protein and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased toward normal level in the treated groups. Histopathological studies showed improvement in the liver architecture in the 500 mg/kg group. 
The increase in endogenous antioxidants and reduction in lipid peroxidation observed in this study suggests that Carica papaya seeds extract can be used as a natural antioxidant in handling liver injury potentiated by acetaminophen overdose.

Keywords: Acetaminophen, Hepatotoxicity, Carica papaya Linn, Extract.
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