Anti-Diarrhoeal Properties of the Ethanol Extract of Terminalia glaucescens Roots on Castor Oil-Induced Diarrhoea in Wistar Rats

Edith N. Okey, Augustine C. Madueke, Emmanuel C. Ossai*, Assumpta C. Anosike, Lawrence U. S. Ezeanyika
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
Corresponding Author: emmanuel.ossai@unn.edu.ng; Tel: +2347038514389
Recieved Date: July 13, 2020; Accepted Date: August 19, 2020; Published Date: 28 August 2020
Citation: Okey EN, Madueke AC, Ossai EC, Anosike AC, Ezeanyika LUS. Anti-Diarrhoeal Properties of the Ethanol Extract of Terminalia glaucescens Roots on Castor Oil-Induced Diarrhoea in Wistar Rats. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2020; 4(8):446-450.  https://doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v4i8.20
Copyright: © 2020 Okey et al. Evaluation of the Sweetening Effects of Thaumatococcus d. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
ABSTRACT

Terminalia glaucescens (family Combretaceae) is an indigenous tropical plant in Africa whose leaves are used in ethnomedicine for the management of dysentery, diabetes and microbial infections. The study evaluated the potentials of Terminalia glaucescens root extract for the management of diarrhoea using standard experimental animal model. The extract was evaluated for its acute toxicity (with 18 mice), phytochemical compositions and anti-diarrhoeal properties. Diarrhoea was induced with castor oil (1 mL) orally.  Anti-diarrhoeal property of the extract was carried out in four (4) study protocols: Curative, Preventive, gastrointestinal motility test and enteropooling test. No death was recorded in animals that received extract up to 5000 mg/kg body weight. Phytochemical analyses recorded the presence of saponins, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, phenols and steroids.  Preventive and curative studies showed significant reduction (p < 0.05) in number and frequency of wet stool in animals treated with the extract at all doses, except at 100 mg/kg body weight for curative studies (non-significant reduction; p > 0.05), relative to untreated controls. Also, administration of the extract to experimental animals significantly reduced (p < 0.05) distance travelled by charcoal meal (gastrointestinal motility) and volume of intestinal content at all doses relative to the untreated control. The extract at 400 mg/kg body weight compared favorably with the standard drug (Loperamide). The study highlighted the ethanol extract of the roots of Terminalia glaucescens as a promising and potent remedy for the ethnomedicinal management of diarrhoea.

Keywords: Anti-diarrhoeal, Terminalia glaucescens, Gastric motility, Enteropooling, phytochemical screening.
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