Morphohistological Effect of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on the Hippocampus of Newborn Wistar Rats

Ignatius I. Ozor1, Zita N. Agwagu2, Elizabeth Finbarrs-Bello1, Onyinye M. Ozioko1*, Uche S. Ozioko1, Loretta C. Mgbachi1
1Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State, Nigeria
2Department of Nursing, Enugu State University of Science and Technology Teaching Hospital,  Enugu State, Nigeria

Corresponding Author: oziokoonyinye@gmail.com; Tel: +2348120444508
Recieved Date: July 08, 2020; Accepted Date: August 11, 2020; Published Date: 28 August 2020
Citation: Ozor II, Agwagu ZN, Finbarrs-Bello E, Ozioko OM, Ozioko US, Mgbachi LC. Morphohistological Effect of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on the Hippocampus of New Born Wistar Rat. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2020; 4(8):435-439.  https://doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v4i8.18
Copyright: © 2020 Ozor et al. Evaluation of the Sweetening Effects of Thaumatococcus d. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
ABSTRACT

The main target of alcohol toxicity in the brain is the hippocampus. This study aims to assess the morphohistological effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on the hippocampus of newborn Wistar rats. In this study, thirty Wistar rats (ten males and twenty females) were used. The male rats were introduced into the female rat cages in a ratio of two female to one male to ensure proper mating. Pregnant female rats were grouped into four; group A (normal control), group B (low dose group), group C (medium-dose group), and group D (high dose group), gavaged at different alcohol concentration (10%, 30% and 50%, respectively) orally per kilogram body weight for a gestational period of twenty-three days. Post-delivery, the pups’ brain were dissected at the 5th week, brain weight was determined and the hippocampus was histologically analyzed. The photomicrograph showed moderate to severe damage on the hippocampus with marked inflammatory process. Experimental group B, C and D showed moderate to severe pyknosis and necrosis of pyramidal neurons, infiltration of microglial cell and rosenthal fiber in group D and an overall reduction in brain mass. This study reveals that prenatal alcohol exposure is detrimental to hippocampus of pups at varying alcohol concentration with gross distortion of hippocampal neuronal architecture and neuronal signaling. The finding if extrapolated to humans shows that alcohol consumption by pregnant women at various concentration and amount is capable of causing regrettable damage to the brain, particularly the hippocampus of the newborn. 

Keywords: Hippocampus, Prenatal Alcohol Exposure, Brain Mass, Wistar Rat.
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