Pharmacological Actions of Methanol Leaf Extract of Combretum paniculatum Vent. (Combretaceae) on the Gastrointestinal System

Ikechukwu E. Peter1, Chiamaka M. Aroh1, Uchenna G. Shere1, Njideka I. Ani2, Ifeyinwa C. Adaka3, Felix K. Asogwa2, Ogechukwu N. Isiogugu1, Collins U. Abonyi1, Akachukwu M. Onwuka1*
1Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 410001 Enugu, Nigeria.
2Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu, Nigeria.
3Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 410001 Enugu, Nigeria.

Corresponding Author: akachukwu.onwuka@unn.edu.ng; Tel: +2348038357391
Recieved Date: June 22, 2019; Accepted Date: July 21, 2020; Published Date: 27 July 2020
Citation: Peter IE, Aroh CM, Shere UG, Ani NI, Adaka IC, Asogwa FK, Isiogugu ON, Abonyi CU, Onwuka AM. Pharmacological Actions of Methanol Leaf Extract of Combretum paniculatum Vent. (Combretaceae) on the Gastrointestinal System. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2020; 4(7):270-275.  https://doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v4i7.3
Copyright: © 2020 Peter et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
ABSTRACT

Combretum paniculatum Vent. (Combretaceae) is used widely in ethnomedicine in the treatment of chronic diarrhea and dysentery, flatulence, vomiting, colic, and enlarged spleen and liver. The study evaluated the potentials of C. paniculatum in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders using diarrheal and ulcer models in Swiss mice and Wistar rats. The anti-diarrheal effect of methanol extract of C. paniculatum was investigated using gastrointestinal motility test in mice, castor oil-induced diarrhea and castor oil-induced enteropooling in rats. Antiulcer effect was evaluated using indomethacin-, absolute ethanol-induced ulcer models and acid neutralizing capacity. The extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg), atropine (10 mg/kg), loperamide (2.5 and 3 mg/kg) and omeprazole (20 mg/kg) were administered. The methanol extract of C. paniculatum (MECP) leaves showed dose-dependent inhibition of intestinal motility. There was significant (P < 0.001) reduction in the number of diarrheic droppings at all administered doses and the volume of intestinal content was significantly (P < 0.01) reduced. MECP exhibited significant (P < 0.05) ulcer protection at 400 mg/kg similar to omeprazole against indomethacin-induced ulcer. There was also significant (P < 0.05) ulcer protection at 200 mg/kg against absolute ethanol-induced ulcer while exhibiting concentration-dependent increase in acid neutralization. The results obtained revealed that the extract possess antidiarrheal and antiulcer activities in Swiss mice and Wistar rats. This justified the folkloric use of C. paniculatum leaves in the treatment of diarrhea and ulcer.

Keywords: Antidiarrheal, Combretum paniculatum, enteropooling, gastrointestinal tract motility, indomethacin.
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