Anti-hypertensive Evaluation of n-Hexane and Hydro-ethanol Fruit Peel Extracts of Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae) in albino rats

Umar T. Mamza1*, Obinna P. Okezu2, Samuel N. Adawara1, Hannah A. Madziga3
1Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.
2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Lagos, Nigeria.
3Department of Veterinary Physiology and Biochemistry, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.

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Recieved Date: April 01, 2020; Accepted Date: May 24, 2020; Published Date: 31 May 2020
Citation: Mamza UT, Okezu OP, Adawara SN, Madziga HA. Anti-hypertensive Evaluation of n-Hexane and Hydro-ethanol Fruit Peel Extracts of Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae) in albino rats. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2020; 4(5):185-189.
Copyright: © 2020 Mamza et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

The fruits of Persea americana are consumed in Nigeria and are reported to have antihypertensive properties in folklore use. Hypertension is currently one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases that lead to high morbidity and mortality globally. The present study was designed to evaluate the antihypertensive effects of n-Hexane and hydro-ethanol extracts of the fruit peel of P. americana on high-salt diet-induced hypertension rats. The antihypertensive investigation of the extracts at different doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) showed a remarkable dose-dependent effect. At 100 mg/kg, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) for n-hexane and hydro-ethanol extracts were 124.28/103.83 mmHg and 122.72/104.78 mmHg, with pulse pressure (PP) of 20.45 and 17.94 mmHg, respectively. At 200 mg/kg, the SBP/DBP were 125.01/112.54 mmHg and 119.92/110.69 mmHg with PP of 12.47 and 9.23 mmHg, respectively. At 400 mg/kg, the SBP/DBP were 117.66/98.8 mmHg and 135.88/121.94 mmHg, with PP of 8.86 and 13.94 mmHg, respectively. The standard drug nifedipine gave SBP/DBP of 105.17/87.72 mmHg with PP of 17.45 mmHg, while other standards gave higher SBP/DBP values; HCT (138.28/126.81 mmHg), telmisartan (174.94/141.29 mmHg) and enalapril (128.99/115.08 mmHg). The results from the highest dose of the n-Hexane extract (400 mg/kg) compared favourably with that of the standard (nifedipine) which shows that the extract might be acting through a similar mechanism as that of nifedipine. The reduction of BP in this study could be due to the presence of identified secondary metabolites in the plant. 

Keywords: Persea americana, Phytochemical Investigation, Antihypertensive, n-Hexane, Hydro-ethanolic Extracts.
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