Anti-Inflammatory Investigations of the Ethanol Extract of Phaulopsis falcisepala C.B. Clarke (Acanthaceae) Whole Plant in Rodents

Sukurat O. Usman1, 2, Abdulrahman A. Aliyu1, Abimbola A. Sowemimo1*, Margaret O. Sofidiya1
1Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos, College of Medicine Campus, Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria.
2Department of Pharmacognosy and Drug Development, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ilorin. Nigeria.

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Recieved Date: March 25, 2020; Accepted Date: April 26, 2020; Published Date: 30 April 2020
Citation: Usman SO, Aliyu AA, Sowemimo AA, Sofidiya MO. Anti-Inflammatory Investigations of the Ethanol Extract of Phaulopsis falcisepala C.B. Clarke (Acanthaceae) Whole Plant in Rodents.  Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2020; 4(4):165-171.
Copyright: © 2020 Usman et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Phaulopsis falcisepala C.B. Clarke (Acanthaceae) is used for treatment of fever and rheumatic pains. The study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanol extract of P. falcisepala using carrageenan, serotonin, histamine, formalin-induced oedema, cotton pellet-induced granuloma models in rats and xylene-induced oedema in mice at doses of 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg/kg orally. Acute oral toxicity and quantitative phytochemical study were also carried out. 
No toxic effect was observed at 5 g/kg after oral administration. The extract produced a significant (p < 0.001, p < 0.0001) dose-dependent inhibition of oedema with the maximum inhibition observed at 60 minutes (68.20%) at 150 mg/kg in the carrageenan model and at 150 mg/kg (59.74%) in xylene model. It produced significant (p < 0.0001) inhibition of oedema with peak effect of 64.89% inhibition at 60 minutes and 73.97% at 90 minutes in the serotonin and histamine oedema models, respectively. It markedly decreased the paw oedema induced by formalin at 100 mg/kg on days 5, 6 and 7 with percentage inhibition of oedema of 87.04%, 86.35% and 99.05%, respectively, and gave a peak inhibition of granuloma tissue development (19.94%) at 200 mg/kg in the cotton pellet granuloma model. Total phenolic, proanthocyanidin and flavonoid contents of the extract were 42.74±0.037 mg/g (gallic acid equivalent), 41.94±0.042 mg/g (catechin equivalent) and 44.62±0.010 mg/g (quercetin equivalent), respectively.  The results justify the use of the plant in the preparation of ethno-medicines used in the treatment of inflammation and provide evidence for further research on its mechanism of action and use.

Keywords: <span style="line-height: 107%;">Phaulopsis falcisepala, Carra
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