Phytochemical, Antimicrobial and Toxicity Evaluation of Anacardium occidentale Linn. Leaf Extracts

Sunday B. Aponjolosun* and Remi T. Fasola 
Department of Botany, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
Corresponding Author: prosperbas@gmail.com; Tel: +234-8086776323
Recieved Date: November 09, 2019; Accepted Date: April 26, 2020; Published Date: 30 April 2020
Citation: Aponjolosun BS and Fasola TR. Phytochemical, Antimicrobial and Toxicity Evaluation of Anacardium occidentale Linn. Leaf Extracts. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2020; 4(4):113-122.  https://doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v4i4.1
Copyright: © 2020 Aponjolosun and Fasola. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
ABSTRACT

Anacardium occidentale is used ethno-medicinally in the treatment of cold, cough, toothaches, gum problems, sore throat, bronchitis, diarrhoea, dysentery, haemorrhoids, diabetes, malaria, rheumatism, arthritis, corns, leprosy and some skin ailments. However, there is dearth of information on their uses scientifically. Thus, this study investigated the phytochemical components, antimicrobial activity and toxicity of A. occidentale leaf extracts. The leaf of A. occidentale was extracted with methanol and consecutively fractionated using hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water. The methanol extract and fractions were quantitatively screened for phytochemical constituents and tested against selected microorganisms using standard procedures. Acute toxicity tests of the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions were done on Wistar rats. The kidneys and livers of the rats were histologically examined. Anacardium occidentale methanol extract had the highest amount of phenolics (98.30 ± 0.15 gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g) while the ethyl acetate fraction had the highest amount of anthraquinones and cardiac glycosides. The butanol fraction had highest saponin and tannin contents, while the aqueous fraction had highest steroids, terpenoids and carotenoids contents. The inhibitory activity of the ethyl acetate fraction against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Serratia marcescens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ranged from 15.0 mm to 19.0 mm inhibitory zone diameter at 100 mg/mL. The ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions were not toxic to the rats at 2,900 mg/kg dose. Consequently, A. occidentale leaf extracts were rich in phytochemicals, had antimicrobial activity and safe for use. 

Keywords:
Anacardium occidentale, phytochemical constituents, antimicrobial activity, acute toxicity.

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