Antifungal activity of Ethyl-acetate Leaf Extract and Terpenoid-Rich Fraction from Hyptis spicigera Lam

Kabiru Adamu 1*, Hannatu Musa1, Aisha O. Musa1, Abdullahi S. Mikailu2

1Department of Botany, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
2Nigerian Institute of Leather and Science Technology, Zaria, Nigeria

Corresponding Author:; Tel: +2347032142489
Recieved Date: December 06, 2019; Accepted Date: March 18, 2020; Published Date: 30 March 2020
Citation: Adamu K, Musa H, Musa AO, Mikailu AS. Antifungal activity of Ethyl-acetate Leaf Extract and Terpenoid-Rich Fraction from Hyptis spicigera Lam. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2020; 4(3):63-68.
Copyright: © 2020 Adamu et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Plant extracts act as contact fungicides by disrupting cell membrane integrity at different stages of fungal development, while others inactivate key enzymes. The present study is aimed at evaluating the phytochemical constituents and antifungal activity of the ethyl-acetate extract and terpenoid-rich fraction from Hyptis spicigera. Qualitative phytochemical analysis was done using standard methods and quantitative analysis was done spectrophotometrically. Antifungal activity was done using Agar well diffusion method. Qualitative phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of anthraquinones, sterols, triterpenes, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, tannins and alkaloids. The quantitative phytochemical screening revealed high concentrations of saponins (920 mg/g) and phenolics (200 mg/g). Sensitivity test of the extract and terpenoid-rich fraction on the test organisms revealed highest diameter zone of inhibition against  Aspergillus  parasiticus (24.67 ± 0.88 mm) and the least inhibition zone against Fusarium  oxysporum (18.00 ± 0.58 mm). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of the ethyl-acetate extract was observed at concentrations ranging between 6.25 and 12.5 mg/mL. The MIC of the terpenoid-rich fraction was observed at concentrations ranging between 6.25 mg/mL and 12.5 mg/mL while the MFC were between 12.5 mg/mL to 25 mg/mL. The result of the antifungal activity revealed that there was a significant difference between the ethyl-acetate extract, terpenoid-rich fraction and the control fungicide (mancozeb). The result obtained from this research suggest that the leaf extract of Hyptis spicigera and its terpenoid-rich fraction could be used as bio-fungicide for the control of fungal diseases caused by species of the genus Aspergillus and Fusarium. 

Keywords: Antifungal, Phytochemical, Ethyl-acetate, Terpenoids-rich fraction. 
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