Acute and Sub-Chronic Toxicity Studies of the Aqueous Ethanol Leaf Extract of Pavonia senegalensis (Cav.) Liestner in Wistar Rats

Umar F. Shehu1*, Ibrahim M. Aliyu2, Najma Ilyas1, Garba Ibrahim1
1Department of Pharmacognosy and Drug Development, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
2Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. 


Corresponding Author: umarfarukshehu@gmail.com; Tel: +2348035376822
Recieved Date: November 01, 2019; Accepted Date: January 20, 2020; Published Date: 27 January 2020
Citation: Shehu UF, Aliyu IM2, Ilyas N, Ibrahim G. Acute and Sub-Chronic Toxicity Studies of the Aqueous Ethanol Leaf Extract of Pavonia senegalensis (Cav.) Liestner in Wistar Rats. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2020; 4(1): 21 - 26.  https://doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v4i1.4
Copyright: © 2020 Shehu et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
ABSTRACT

The leaf of Pavonia senegalensis is used traditionally for the treatment of bone and soft tissue infections. In this study, the aqueous ethanol leaf extract was investigated for its acute and sub-chronic toxicological effects. Acute toxicity study was done using Lorke method while the 28-day sub-chronic toxicity study was done using OECD guideline in Wistar rats via the oral route. The LD50 from the acute toxicity study was > 5000 mg/kg indicating that the extract is non-toxic. In the sub-chronic toxicity study, there was no significant changes in body weight and relative organ weights of organ assessed in both the extract treated and control groups. There were no significant variations in the haematological indices in the extract treated groups compared to control. There was a significant (p ? 0.05) increase in creatinine levels at 600 mg/kg dose of the extract compared to control and there were a dose-dependent glomerular and tubular necrosis on sections of the kidney in the extract treated groups. There were no significant changes in liver enzymes markers in the extract treated groups compared to control. The section of the liver showed a slight to moderate necrosis, vacoulation and vascular congestion that is dose-dependent in the extract treated groups. The section of the spleen showed a slight lesion that is dose-dependent. In conclusion, the aqueous ethanol leaf extract of P. senegalensis is non-toxic when given orally over a short period but the 28 days administration showed that the extract is nephrotoxic and slightly hepatotoxic in rats.

Keywords: LD50, Liver, Creatinine, Kidney, Necrosis, P. senegalensis
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