In Vitro Cytotoxic Effect of Andrographolide On MDA-MB-231-LM2 Breast Cancer Cells and Its Formulation and Characterization As An Emulsion

Bukola A. Oseni*, Chukwuemeka P. Azubuike, Omotunde O. Okubanjo, Cecilia I. Igwilo
Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos, College of Medicine Campus, PMB 12003, Surulere, Lagos, Nigeria 
Corresponding Author: abadebayo@unilag.edu.ng; Tel: +2349081540511
Recieved Date: December 16, 2019; Accepted Date: January 20, 2020; Published Date: 27 January 2020
Citation: Oseni BA, Azubuike CA, Okubanjo OO, Igwilo CI. In Vitro Cytotoxic Effect of Andrographolide On MDA-MB-231-LM2 Breast Cancer Cells and Its Formulation and Characterization As An Emulsion. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2020; 4(1): 1 - 7.  https://doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v4i1.1
Copyright: © 2020 Oseni et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
ABSTRACT

Andrographolide, a potential chemotherapeutic agent elicits its anticancer activity on various cancer types by activating multiple cell death pathways thereby possessing the intrinsic ability to combat resistance. The andrographolide molecule however is poorly soluble in water (74 µg/mL) resulting in reduced efficacy; hence, the need for its formulation into appropriate dosage form. The study is aimed at investigating the in vitro cytotoxic potency of andrographolide on MDA-MB-231-LM2 breast cancer cells with subsequent formulation and characterization of andrographolide emulsions.
In vitro cytotoxic effect of andrographolide on MDA-MB-231-LM2 breast cancer cells was investigated via the MTS (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium) assay, andrographolide was formulated as an emulsion using olive oil, castor oil and liquid paraffin respectively. The formulations were characterized by determining the emulsion type, particle size, flow rate, viscosity and andrographolide content.
Andrographolide was found to be cytotoxic to MDA-MB-231-LM2 breast cancer cells having an IC50 (concentration required to cause 50% reduction in viable cells) value of 25.96 µM. The formulations contained particles between 6.53 to 14.4 µm size; formulations containing olive oil and liquid paraffin had smaller particle size and higher viscosity than the castor oil formulation. The olive oil emulsion had lower flow rate. All formulations were of the oil-in-water emulsion type containing 98.3 – 104.2% andrographolide. 
Andrographolide exhibits cytotoxic activity on MDA-MB-231-LM2 cells. Its emulsion formulations containing olive oil and liquid paraffin as oil phase possess desirable physicochemical properties than the castor oil formulation.

Keywords: Andrographolide, MDA-MB-231-LM2 cells, cytotoxic effect, breast cancer, emulsion.
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