Acute and Sub-Chronic Toxicity Studies on the Methanol Leaf Extract of Leptadenia hastata in Wistar Rats

Ibrahim H. Sani*, Abdullahi R. Abubakar, Abdullahi H. Yaro, Sani Malami
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Pharmaceutical sciences, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria.
Corresponding Author: harunaibrahim81@yahoo.com; ihsan0193@nwu.edu.ng; Tel: +2348036858682
Recieved Date: September 20, 2019; Accepted Date: November 14, 2019; Published Date: 10 December 2019
Citation: Sani IH, Abubakar AR, Yaro AH, Malami S. Acute and Sub-Chronic Toxicity Studies on the Methanol Leaf Extract of Leptadenia hastata in Wistar Rats. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2019; 3(10): 302-306.  https://doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v3i10.1
Copyright: © 2019 Sani et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
ABSTRACT

Leptadenia hastata (Pers.) Decne is a wild plant used as vegetable and medicine in Africa due to its nutritive and therapeutic properties in the treatment of pain, hypertension, psychiatric disorders and stomach upset in children. The present study evaluated the acute and sub-chronic toxicity effects of the methanol leaf extract of Leptadenia hastata (LHME) in rats. For the acute toxicity study, a single oral dose (5000 mg/kg) of LHME was administered to three rats and observed for 14 days for signs of acute toxicity. The sub-chronic toxicity study involved daily oral administration of LHME at 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg body weight for 28 days. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of steroids, glycoside, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins. The oral median lethal dose (LD50) was estimated to be > 5000 mg/kg. There were no mortalities or signs of toxicity observed in the rats following acute and sub-chronic administration of LHME. Sub-chronic administration of LHME also did not cause any changes in body weight of the rats.  There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) observed in the relative organ weights, body weights, haematological indices, biochemical parameters. Therefore, it is concluded that the oral administration of the LHME for 28 days does not cause acute or sub-chronic toxicity effects.

Keywords: Leptadenia hastata, Acute toxicity, Sub-chronic toxicity, OECD; Hematological indices, Ethnomedicine.
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