Formulation of Antiseptic Ointments from Mangifera indica Kernel, Leaf and Psidium guajava Leaf Extracts

Oladapo T. Okareh1, Mojisola A. Alaiya1*, Michael A. Odeniyi2
1Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Faculty of Public Health, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.  
2Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Corresponding Author: alaiyamoj@gmail.com; Tel: +234-1-8055219901
Recieved Date: October 25, 2019; Accepted Date: November 20, 2019; Published Date: 10 December 2019
Citation: Okareh OT, Alaiya MA, Odeniyi MA. Formulation of Antiseptic Ointments from Mangifera indica Kernel, Leaf and Psidium guajava Leaf Extracts. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2019; 3(10):307-313.  https://doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v3i10.2
Copyright: © 2019 Okareh et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
ABSTRACT

The increasing resistance of some priority pathogenic bacteria to some known antibiotics warrant more research into development of new antibacterial agents. The main study objective was to formulate antiseptic ointments from Mangifera indica kernel, leaf and Psidium guajava leaf extracts and investigate the antibacterial activity. The study also aimed at comparing the efficacy of the plant extracts and ointments as antibacterial agents. The study design was experimental. Study population were laboratory scientists and janitors selected using purposive sampling. Powdered plant samples were extracted with 100% methanol and phytochemical analysis was conducted. The ointments were formulated using the British Pharmacopoeia method of simple ointment formulation. Microbial analysis was conducted using agar diffusion and dilution methods. Data was analysed using SPSS statistical software. All plant samples tested positive for the presence of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and terpenoids. There was significant difference in mean zone of inhibition among the extracts and ointments against all test organisms with mango kernel exhibiting the highest activity. Staphylococcus aureus exhibited the highest susceptibility to all extracts and ointments. Minimum inhibitory concentration for mango kernel ointment was 25 mg/mL for all test organisms while bacteria growth was observed at all concentrations for mango leaf and guava leaf ointments. Mango kernel extract and ointment exhibited highest significant antibacterial activity (20.70 ± 1.05 and 18.00 ± 0.89, respectively). This study demonstrated that mango kernel ointment possesses greater efficacy as antibacterial agent compared to mango leaf and guava leaf ointments. 

Keywords: Mango kernel, phytochemical, Psidium guajava, antimicrobial ointment.
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