Evaluation of Disintegrant Potential of Carboxymethyl Starch Derived from Cyperus esculentus (Cyperaceae) Tubers

Chukwuemeka P. Azubuike*, Rebecca O. Fabiyi, Bukola A. Oseni, Cecilia I. Igwilo

Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos, College of Medicine Campus, PMB 12003, Surulere, Lagos, Nigeria.

Corresponding Author: cazubuike@unilag.edu.ng; Tel: +234 8033618556
Recieved Date: July 28, 2019; Accepted Date: August 22, 2019; Published Date: 25 August 2019
Citation: Azubuike CP, Fabiyi RO, Oseni BA, Igwilo CI. Evaluation of Disintegrant Potential of Carboxymethyl Starch Derived from Cyperus esculentus (Cyperaceae) Tubers. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2019; 3(7):246-251.  https://doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v3i7.6
Copyright: © 2019 Azubuike et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Starch is an important excipient in the pharmaceutical industry. Pharmaceutical grade starch is mostly obtained from food sources and rarely from unconventional sources. The native starch has limited applications; these can be improved by modification. Native starch obtained from Cyperus esculentus tubers- an unconventional source was modified by carboxymethylation and evaluated for its disintegrant potentials in metronidazole tablet formulation. Extraction of starch from Cyperus esculentus tubers was carried out using sodium metabisulphite. Chemical modification of the native starch by carboxymethylation was achieved using monochloroacetic acid (MCA). The physicochemical properties of the carboxymethylated starches were determined including their compatibility with metronidazole powder. The modified starches were also employed as a disintegrant at different concentrations (2.5%, 5% and 7.5%) in formulation of metronidazole tablets and compared with sodium starch glycolate (SSG), a commercial brand. Two batches of Cyperus esculentus carboxymethyl starch with degree of substitution of 0.13 (CES1) and 0.47 (CES2) were obtained from the native starch (CES0). The chemical modification of the Cyperus esculentus native starch led to desirable physicochemical and micromeritics properties (especially increase in hydration capacity and flow potentials). The tabletting properties of metronidazole tablets formulated with the CES1 as disintegrant were comparable to the standard, SSG. At concentrations of 5% and 7.5%, there were no significant differences in the disintegration times of metronidazole tablets formulated with CES1 and SSG. Carboxymethyl Cyperus esculentus starch possess improved flow properties and could be potential disintegrant in tablet formulations.

Keywords: carboxymethyl starch, Cyperus esculentus, disintegrant, metronidazole, carboxymethylation.
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