Evaluation of Nauclea diderrichii (De Wild.) Merrill Leaf Extracts and Fractions against Some Clinical Bacterial Isolates from Urinary Tract Infections

Segun A. Aderibigbe1*, Olumuyiwa S. Alabi2, Quadri A. Yekini1

1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. 
2Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Corresponding Author: segunab@yahoo.com; Tel: +234 8056423637
Recieved Date: June 22, 2019; Accepted Date: August 05, 2019; Published Date: 25 August 2019
Citation: Aderibigbe SA, Alabi OS, Yekini QA. Evaluation of Nauclea diderrichii (De Wild.) Merrill Leaf Extracts and Fractions against Some Clinical Bacterial Isolates from Urinary Tract Infections. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2019; 3(7):231-234.  https://doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v3i7.3
Copyright: © 2019 Aderibigbe et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) constitute considerable health and economic burdens globally. The advent of resistant strains of uropathogens coupled with high rate of recurrent UTIs has heightened the precarious situation. Consequently, research efforts are being directed towards alternative treatment solutions. This study investigated the potential of Nauclea diderrichii leaf extracts and fractions as antibacterial agents against some clinical uropathogen isolates. Chloroform, acetone and methanol extracts of dried leaf of N. diderrichii, obtained by cold maceration, were evaluated for antibacterial activity against five different species (2 strains each) of clinical uropathogenic bacterial isolates from UTI; namely: Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter feacalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The secondary metabolites present in these extracts were investigated by qualitative phytochemical screening. The most active extract was subjected to chromatographic fractionation, while the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the fractions were determined. Chloroform extract exhibited activity against all the strains with inhibition zone diameters of 10 mm – 19 mm, while methanol and acetone extracts showed some activity against some of the organisms with inhibition zone diameters of 10 mm – 18 mm and 12 mm – 16 mm, respectively. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, alkaloids, anthraquinones, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, phenolics and flavonoids. Fractionation of the chloroform extract yielded three fractions, with MICs: 0.78125 – 25 mg/mL, fraction C; 1.5625 – 12.5 mg/mL, fraction B; and 1.5625 – 25 mg/mL, fraction A. This study confirmed that N. diderrichii leaf contains bioactive compounds against UTI-causing uropathogens.

Keywords: Nauclea diderrichii, Urinary tract infections, Uropathogens, Chromatographic fractionation, Secondary metabolites.
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