Alpha-Amylase, Maltase and Sucrase Inhibitions by Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiacea) and Piliostigma reticulatum (Caesalpiniaceae) in Rats

Abubakar Gidado*, Miriam Watafua, Rabiu S. Sa’ad, Hafsat S. Tagi, Suleiman Abdullahi
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State 

Corresponding Author: abugidado@unimaid.edu.ng; Tel: +2348032828098
Recieved Date: May 26, 2019; Accepted Date: June 18, 2019; Published Date: 09 July 2019
Citation: Gidado A, Watafua M, Tagi HS, Sa’ad RS, Abdullahi S. Alpha-Amylase, Maltase and Sucrase Inhibitions by Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiacea) and Piliostigma reticulatum (Caesalpiniaceae) in Rats. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2019; 3(4):210-215.  https://doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v3i6.5
Copyright: © 2019 . Gidado et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
ABSTRACT

Amylases, maltase and sucrase enzymes are involved in digestion of carbohydrate meals and are therefore targets for inhibition to prevent postprandial blood glucose rise in diabetes mellitus. Extracts of the leaves of Anacardium occidentale and Piliostigma reticulatum are reported to possess antidiabetic activity. In this study, the inhibitory potential of the aqueous extracts of the leaves of two plants on the carbohydrate digestive enzymes in vivo was investigated to establish their possible mechanism of action. The extracts at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight were co-administered to normoglycaemic rats with starch for the ?-amylase and maltose or sucrose for the maltase and sucrase inhibitions, respectively. Acarbose was used as standard drug for comparison. Increases of 27%, 30%, and 22% in blood glucose levels were seen after 30 minutes following starch, maltose and sucrose administrations, respectively to the experimental rats. Co-administration of starch or maltose with the aqueous extract of Anacardium occidentale at 200 mg/kg body weight completely inhibited the rise in blood glucose. Similar pattern was observed when the aqueous extract of P. reticulatum at 200 mg/kg body weight was co-administered with the starch or maltose. The results therefore suggest that the antidiabetic potential of the plants’ leaf extracts may be associated with amylases and maltase inhibitions.

Keywords: Anacardium occidentale, Piliostigma reticulatum, antidiabetic, amylase, enzymes.
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