Evaluation of Chemical Composition, Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Potential of Leaf and Root Extracts of Euphorbia graminae

Abolade O. Bolaji1*, Oluwatobi I. Adeniran1, Awotunde Adedayo2, Bolajoko A. Akinpelu2
1Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

Corresponding Author: abolaji@oauife.edu.ng; Tel: +2348031976435
Recieved Date: May 17, 2019; Accepted Date: July 03, 2019; Published Date: 09 July 2019
Citation: Bolaji AO, Adeniran IO, Awotunde A,  Akinpelu B.A. Evaluation of Chemical Composition, Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Potential of Leaf and Root Extracts of Euphorbia graminae. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2019; 3(6):201-209.  https://doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v3i6.4
Copyright: © 2019 . Bolaji et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
ABSTRACT

Reports by several researchers have shown that plants are potent sources of phyto-constituents some of which have been useful in traditional medicine, cosmetics industries and food supplement industries. As part of the ongoing search for therapeutic plants with little or no side effects, this study investigated the nutritive and therapeutic potentials of a common weed Euphorbia graminae, so as to provide useful information on the plant. The leaf and root methanol extracts of E. graminae were screened for the presence of phytochemical constituents. The red blood cell membrane stabilization as well as antioxidant assays were also evaluated. The cytotoxic effect of the extracts was also investigated using Allium cepa model. Result revealed that both extracts contained saponins, steroids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids and triterpenes. The proximate analysis of the leaf revealed the presence of moisture, carbohydrate, protein, ash, fat and crude fibre. The leaf extracts exerted reductive antioxidant potential in dose dependent manner while the root extract showed better reductive potential at lower concentrations. Only the root extract scavenged DPPH- radicals and also exhibited lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity greater than the leaf extract. The leaf extract protected the stressed erythrocytes better at lower concentrations while the root extract protected better at higher concentrations in a dose dependent manner. However, both extracts did not show cytotoxic or genotoxic effect on A. cepa chromosome. Therefore E. graminae can be considered as plant that could be beneficial in the traditional medicine in the management of oxidative and inflammatory related conditions.

Keywords: Euphorbia graminae, nutritional component, phytochemicals, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cytotoxic.
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