Phytochemical Analysis and Antibacterial Activity of Trema orientalis (Ulmaceae) Stem Bark Extracts on Respiratory Tract Bacteria

Glory O. Ajayi1*, Agumage Idoko1, Abdulrahman Usman2
1Departments of Pharmacognosy Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria.
2Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria.


Corresponding Author: glory9ajayi@yahoo.com; Tel: +234 8023917544
Recieved Date: November 14, 2018; Accepted Date: December 17, 2018; Published Date: 03 January 2019
Citation: Ajayi GO, Idoko A, Usman A. Phytochemical Analysis and Antibacterial Activity of Trema orientalis (Ulmaceae) Stem Bark Extracts on Respiratory Tract Bacteria. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2018; 2(12):512-516.  https://doi.org//10.26538/tjnpr/v2i12.4
Copyright: © 2018 Ajayi et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
ABSTRACT

Respiratory tract infection causing micro-organisms are becoming increasingly resistant to common antibiotics. This negative health trend has rekindled interest in the search for plant constituents as sources of antibacterial agents that can be used for the treatment of respiratory tract infectious diseases. The objective of this study is to carry out phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of Trema orientalis stem bark extracts on respiratory tract bacteria. Phytochemical screening and thin layer chromatography (TLC) were done on T. orientalis stem bark extracts obtained by successive extraction with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Also, the antibacterial activity of the extracts were carried out using clinical isolate of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Proteus mirabilis. The most active chloroform extract was further screened by TLC bioautography using the test microorganisms. The phytochemical screening of the stem bark extracts revealed the presence of flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins and tannins. The chloroform extract inhibited the growth of all the test organisms especially E. coli and K. pneumonia. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for E. coli and K. pneumonia were 0.4 mg/mL and 1.6 mg/mL respectively; while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was 0.8 mg/mL for E. coli and 12.8 mg/mL for K. pneumonia. This study has justified the traditional use of this plant for the treatment of respiratory tract infections.

Keywords: Phytochemical analysis, antibacterial activity, TLC bioautography, Trema orientalis
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