Modulation of Cytokines by Ketogenic Diet and Cyclophosphamide Chemotherapy in 1-Methyl Nitrosourea-Induced Mammary Tumour in Rats

Zahatu Muhammad1*, Jamilu Ya’u1, Nuhu M. Danjuma1, Bisalla Mohammed2
1Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
2Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria.

Corresponding Author:; Tel: +2348131302991
Recieved Date: November 02, 2018; Accepted Date: November 24, 2018; Published Date: 27 November 2018
Citation: Muhammad Z, Ya’u J, Danjuma NM, Mohammed B. Modulation of Cytokines by Ketogenic Diet and Cyclophosphamide Chemotherapy in 1-Methyl Nitrosourea-Induced Mammary Tumour in Rats. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2018; 2(11):476-481.
Copyright: © 2018 Muhammad et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide and it is expected to increase fivefold in the next 25 years. The influence of diet and nutrition in chronic diseases risk and prevention has been a subject of several studies for years. The aim of this study was to investigate the modulation of cytokine by cyclophosphamide and ketogenic diet on experimentally 1-Methyl Nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mammary tumour in female Wistar rats. Twenty-five female rats were divided into five groups of five rats each. Mammary tumour was induced with a single intraperitoneal administration of MNU (65 mg/kg). Blood samples were collected before and after treatment with ketogenic diet supplementation and co-administration of Cyclophosphamide (10 mg/kg) with ketogenic diet, serum concentrations of cytokines were measured. After the treatment, rats were euthanized, and the mammary glands were harvested for histological examination. Ketogenic diet supplementation and co-administration of Cyclophosphamide with ketogenic diet significantly (P? 0.05) reduced the serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, 4 and 18, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). The treatments also significantly (P ? 0.05) increased the serum concentrations of IL-2, tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interferon-? (IFN-?) in MNU-induced mammary tumour. Histopathological examinations showed that the neoplastic growth in the treatment groups shifted to hyperplasia and benign carcinoma, rather than the severe adenocarcinoma detected in the untreated group. Ketogenic diet possesses a significant beneficial effect on cancer chemotherapy.

Keywords: Ketogenic diet, cytokines, MNU, Wistar rats.
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ISSN: 2616-0684 (Print)
ISSN: 2616-0692 (Online)
DOI: 10.26538/tjnpr
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