Contamination of Sudanese Banknotes with Acinetobacter radioresistens 

Malik S. Mohamed1,2*, Manasik G. Ali2,3, Noha A. A. Alfadil4, Mona T. Idriss5, Eyman M. Eltayib1,4, Tilal Elsaman6,7, Magdi A. Mohamed6,8-In2*
1Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Jouf University, Sakaka, Saudi Arabia
2Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan
3Antibody Engineering Laboratory, School of Life Science & Technology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China
4Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Al Neelain, Khartoum-Sudan
5Department of Pharmaceutics, Imperial University College, Khartoum, Sudan
6Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Jouf University, Sakaka, Saudi Arabia
7Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Omdurman Islamic University, Omdurman, Sudan
8Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

Corresponding Author:; Tel: 00966554649606
Recieved Date: 05 June; Accepted Date: 20 August ; Published Date: 03 September
Citation: Mohamed MS, Ali MG, Alfadil NAA4, Idriss MT, Eltayib EM, Elsaman T, Mohamed MA. Contamination of Sudanese Bank Notes with Acinetobacter radioresistens. Trop J Nat Prod Res, Month 2021; 5(5):1427-1433.
© 2021Mohamed et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Visit for more related articles at  Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research


Acinetobacter radioresistens is an environmental gram-negative species, ubiquitous in nature and resistant to radiation, desiccation and several antimicrobial agents. The bacterium is a potential human pathogen and has been detected in plants, soil, healthy individuals and patientsThis study was carried out to detect the presence of A. radioresistens strains in the circulating Sudanese banknotes and to determine their sensitivity towards commonly used antimicrobial agents. The possible presence of Acinetobacter spp. in 130 used Sudanese banknotes, randomly collected from currency handlers in Khartoum state, in addition to 3 new control banknotes was investigated using various cultural techniques. Blood agar and MacConkey agar plates were used to recover and isolate bacteria from the banknotes. Biochemical tests such as oxidase, catalase, motility and fermentation tests were used to identify the A. radioresistens isolates and the multiple drug-resistant isolates were further identified using a genotypic detection method, namely 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing. Isolates recovered from different 10 banknotes were identified as Acinetobacter spp., and there was no contamination detected in the controls. Antibiotic sensitivity test revealed that some isolates were resistant to multiple drugs. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the most resistant isolate of A. radioresistens was deposited into NCBI GenBank with accession number MG203880. The results of the current study revealed that nearly 8% of the tested banknotes were contaminated with A. radioresistens. Antimicrobial sensitivity testing indicated the existence of multiple drug-resistant isolates. Thus, appropriate measures should be taken to protect Sudanese currency holders.

Keywords: 16S rRNA, Drug resistance, Acinetobacter radioresistens, Contamination, Banknotes.
Back to Articles

ISSN: 2616-0684 (Print)
ISSN: 2616-0692 (Online)
DOI: 10.26538/tjnpr
Index Copernicus Value (ICV) for 2017: 59.83
Scopus citescore 0.3 (2020)

Indexing & Abstracting

citescore 0.3 (2020)

j-gate logo

International Innovative Journal Impact Factor

African Index Medicus


Index Copernicus International

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License

Crossref Content Registration logo

WorldCat Discovery Service

Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research