Chemical Composition, Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activity of the Crude Extract and Fractions of the Leaves of Fadogia Cienkowskii Schweinf (Rubiaceae)

Stella O. Bruce1*, Felix A. Onyegbule2, Christopher O. Ezugwu3, Ifeoma D. Nweke1, Chioma R. Ezenwelu1, Felix I. Nwafor3


1Department of Pharmacognosy and Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria 
2Department Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria 
3Department of Pharmacognosy and Environmental Medicines, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria

Corresponding Author: stellaobruce@yahoo.com ; Tel: +2348037450936
Recieved Date: 19 June 2020; Accepted Date: 21 March 2021; Published Date: 03 May
Citation: Bruce SO, Onyegbule FA, Ezugwu CO, Nweke ID, Ezenwelu CR, Nwafor FI. Chemical Composition, Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activity of the Crude Extract and Fractions of the Leaves of Fadogia cienkowskii Schweinf (Rubiaceae). Trop J Nat Prod Res, April 2021; 5(4): 720-731. doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v5i4.21 http://www.doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v5i4.21
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Copyright: © 2021 Bruce et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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ABSTRACT

Fadogia cienkowskii (wild plant) belongs to the Rubiaceae family. The purpose of this study is to investigate the chemical composition, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the extract and fractions of Fadogia cienkowskii leaves. Phytochemical analysis was carried out using standard protocols; the hepatoprotection was determined in paracetamol-induced liver damage model in rat, and the antioxidant potential evaluated using both in vivo and in vitro antioxidant models. The phytochemical analysis revealed that tannins, flavonoids and phenols are the highest phytochemical constituents. The histopathological study showed reduction in hepatic damage. The hepatoprotective activity at 200-400 mg/kg ethanol extract and 200-400 mg/kg ethyl acetate fraction showed significant (p < 0.01) reductions in serum liver enzymes (ALP, AST and ALT)/ bilirubin levels in paracetamol-induced liver injury in rats. The percentage inhibition of the ethanol extract and fractions of the leaves of F. cienkowskii at different doses showed that the ethanol extract at 300 mg/kg has the highest percentage inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes SOD (22.2%), CAT (39.3%) and MDA (9.6%); while for the different fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction at 400 mg/kg has the highest percentage inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes SOD (88.83%), CAT (71.43%) and MDA (68.97%) levels. Thus, ethanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of F. cienkowskii exerted significant hepatoprotection at higher doses even more than Silymarin (100mg/kg) against paracetamol-induced toxicity. Hence, this justified its traditional use by herbalists in the South Eastern Nigeria for the treatment of liver disease.

Keywords: Hepatoprotective, Antioxidant, Phytochemical, Histopathology, Fadogia cienkowskii, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
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ISSN: 2616-0684 (Print)
ISSN: 2616-0692 (Online)
DOI: 10.26538/tjnpr
Index Copernicus Value (ICV) for 2017: 59.83
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