Prescription Analysis of Outpatients in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Khayal Muhammad1, Muhammad U. Amin2, Farman U. Khan1, Najlaa S. Ismael3*, Sabi-Ur-Rehman2, Ali Ahmed4, Muhammad Saqlain5, Muhammad H. Butt6, Muhammad S. Latif7, Muhammad Kamran5
1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Near East University, North Cyprus, Turkey
2Department of Pharmacy, Abasyn University, Peshawar, Pakistan
3Faculty of Pharmacy, Philadelphia University, Amman, Jordan
4School of Pharmacy, Monash University, Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia
5Department of Pharmacy, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan
6Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Central Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
7Faculty of Pharmacy, Gomal University, D.I.Khan, Pakistan


Corresponding Author: nsaadi@philadelphia.edu.jo ; Tel: +962 777414338
Recieved Date: 10 January 2021; Accepted Date: 30 March 2021; Published Date: 03 May
Citation: Muhammad K, Amin MU, Khan FU, Ismael NS, Sabi-Ur-Rehman, Ahmed A, Saqlain A, Butt MH, Latif MS, Kamran M. Prescription Analysis of Outpatients in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2021; 5(4): 643-648. doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v5i4.9 http://www.doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v5i4.9
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© 2021 Muhammad et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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ABSTRACT

Rational use of therapeutic agents is a vital component of good health outcomes for patients as well as the community. The current study aimed to identify rational use of drugs, prescription errors and polypharmacy in outpatients at a teaching hospital in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. A prospective cohort research study was conducted for analyzing prescription in the outpatient pharmacy department of Lady Reading Hospital, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. A total of 326 prescriptions were examined through a random systematic sampling method. World Health Organization (WHO) core drug prescribing indicators and prescription legibility methods were used for prescription analysis. Using SPSS version 22.0, the collected data were recorded and analyzed after manual data verification. Of the total, 1,539 drugs were prescribed with a mean drug per prescription of 4.7 (Optimal value ? 2). Out of these, 65.3% (Optimal value < 30%) prescriptions consisting of antibiotics, Prescriptions with injectable medicines were 52.7% (Optimal value <21.1%). Percentage of drugs prescribed with generic name was 6.9% and 85.4% were from National essential medicine list/hospital formulary (Optimal value = 100%) and on average each patient was prescribed with almost five drugs. Poor adherence to WHO prescribing indicators and prescribing errors were observed. To identify the root causes of prescription problems in these settings, a comprehensive study needs to be carried out, with this study as a starting point.

Keywords: Outpatients, Pakistan, Hospital, Prescription, Polypharmacy, Drug use.
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ISSN: 2616-0684 (Print)
ISSN: 2616-0692 (Online)
DOI: 10.26538/tjnpr
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