Antimicrobial Activity, Phytochemistry and Acute Toxicity Profile of Sarcocephalius latifolius Root Bark

Ifeoma M. Ezeonu_1 and Ikechukwu K. Chukwudozie_1,2*

1Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
2Department of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, China

Corresponding Author:; Tel: +2348038926486
Recieved Date: 15 December 2020; Accepted Date: 14 March 2021; Published Date: 03 March
Citation: Ezeonu IM and Chukwudozie IK. Antimicrobial Activity, Phytochemistry and Acute Toxicity Profile of Sarcocephalius latifolius Root Bark. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2021; 5(3):576-581.
© 2021 Ezeonu and Chukwudozie. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Sarcocephalius latifolius root bark is used in ethnomedicine to treat urinary tract infections, malaria, diarrhea, and typhoid fever. The present study was aimed at investigating the antimicrobial activity of the plant. Clinical isolates of Klebsiella spp, Proteus mirabilis, and type isolates including Candida albicans ATCC 7596, Escherichia coli ATCC 11775, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 1200 and Salmonella kintambo SSRL113 were used in the study. Agar well diffusion technique and broth dilution method were used to determine the antimicrobial properties and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). The results obtained revealed that the ethanol extract significantly (P < 0.05) exhibited more antimicrobial activity than the aqueous extract. Fractionation of the ethanol extract was carried out with chloroform, ethyl-acetate, acetone, and methanol to obtain corresponding fractions. Antimicrobial activity testing of the fractions showed that the ethyl-acetate fraction exhibited the highest antimicrobial effect. Phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts and the various fractions revealed the varied content of alkaloids, saponins, essential oils, tannins, glycosides and flavonoids, which are reported to be mainly responsible for the recorded antimicrobial effect. Acute toxicity studies performed on the ethanol extract using albino rats suggested that the extract is non-toxic (LD50 > 5000 mg/kg body weight). The results authenticate the folklore claim of medicinal properties of the plant.

Keywords: Sarcocephalius latifolius, Antimcrobial activity, Phytochemical analysis, Acute toxicity.
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