Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Local Honey from Jordan

Khaled M. Khleifat1, Haitham Qaralleh2*, Muhamad O. Al-limoun1, Enas M. Al-khlifeh3, Sundus A. Aladaileh1
Nafi Tawarah2, Ibrahim S. Almajali2

1Biology Department, Mutah University, Mutah, Karak, 61710, Jordan
2Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Mutah University, Mutah, Karak, 61710, Jordan
3Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Science, Al-Balqa Applied University, Al-Salt, 19117, Jordan

Corresponding Author:; Tel: 00962-797489248
Recieved Date: 21 November 2020; Accepted Date: 5 March 2021; Published Date: 03 March
Citation: Khleifat KM, Qaralleh H, Al-limoun MO, Al-khlifeh EM, Aladaileh SA, Tawarah N, Almajali IS. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Local Honey from Jordan. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2021; 5(3):470-477.
© 2021 Khleifat et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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The medical usage of honey has become popular as an alternative and complementary treatment in recent time. This study was aimed at determining the inhibitory effect of honey and propolis against various species of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The antibacterial activity was assessed using the disc diffusion and macro-dilution methods. The antioxidant activity was measured using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. The tested honey showed antibacterial activity only against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus.  All bacteria tested showed less degree of susceptibility to propolis treatment; producing less than 15 mm zone of inhibition. The propolis exhibited different antibacterial activity compared to the honey, the propolis inhibited the growth of gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus and B. cereus) while the honey inhibited S.  saprophyticus and E. coli. In the DPPH scavenging assay, the scavenging activities of local honey and propolis ranged from 9.81 to 90.70% and from 25.33 to 73.47%, respectively, with IC50 values of 4.5 mg/mL and 7.5 µg/mL, respectively. Therefore, the locally available natural honey may be used as a rich source of antioxidant and as an effective antibacterial agent that may be used to combat bacterial infections due to susceptible organisms.

Keywords: Honey, Propolis, Antibacterial, Antioxidant.
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