Extraction, Characterization and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oil and Hydrosol from Sida acuta Burm. f. Leaves Grown in Nigeria

Isaac S. Njoku1,2, Maurene U. Ichide1, Nisar-Ur Rahman2, Muhammad Ahsan Khan2, Ngozi A. Chibuko3, Olayinka T. Asekun1, Oluwole B. Familoni1  
1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Lagos, Akoka-Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria
2Department of Pharmacy,COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus, Pakistan.
 3Department of Marine Science, Faculty of Science, University of Lagos, Akoka-Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria

Corresponding Author: saintnjokuphd@gmail.com; Tel: +2347037980140
Recieved Date: November 23, 2020; Accepted Date: January 21, 2021; Published Date: 03 February 2021
Citation: Njoku IS, Ichide MU, Rahman N, Khan AM, Chibuko NA, Asekun OT, Oluwole B. Familoni OB. Extraction, Characterization and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oil and Hydrosol from Sida acuta Burm. f. Leaves Grown in Nigeria. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2021; 5(1):211-216.  https://doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v5i1.29
Copyright: © 2021 Njoku et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
ABSTRACT

Mosquitoes transmit the malaria parasite, causing diseases and thousands of deaths annually. The major problems associated with the use of chemicals for the control of mosquitoes include the development of resistance to these chemicals by the plasmodium parasite and their undesirable toxic effects on humans and the environment. In this research, the volatile oil was extracted (in n-hexane) from the air-dried leaves of Sida acuta by hydrodistillation method. The hydrosol was extracted with n-hexane in the ratio 10:2. The oils were analysed using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS).The larvae of the mosquito species were exposed to five different test concentrations of the volatile oil and hydrosol oil of Sida acuta and were assayed. The larval mortality was observed and IC50 value was calculated using the probit analysis test. The GC–MS chromatograph of the oil revealed a total of 17 volatile constituents. Heneicosane (13.73%), docosane (11.11%), 1-iodohexadecane (10.06%) and hexa-hydrofarnesyl acetone (9.55 %) were the predominant compounds. The hydrosol oil comprised of 11 volatile constituents with triacontane (16.76 %), phytane (16.33%), tricosane (14.91%) and octane (13.04 %) as the most abundant major constituents. The oils displayed varying degrees of larvicidal activities against the larvae, with highest larval mortality percentage of 80 % and 70% at 500 mg/L respectively in comparison to chloroquine, positive control (90%) and hexane, negative control (0%). The results show that the essential oil and hydrosol of Sida acuta Burm. f. possesses strong larvicidal properties.

Keywords: Hydrodistillation, Larvicidal, Sida acuta, Volatile oil, Hydrosol.
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