Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity and Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Picralima nitida in Drosophila melanogaster

Opeyemi C. De Campos1,2*, Modupe P. Layole1, Franklyn N. Iheagwam1,2, Solomon O. Rotimi1,2, Shalom N. Chinedu1,2
1Department of Biochemistry, College of Science and Technology, Covenant University, Canaan Land, PMB 1023 Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria
2Covenant University Public Health and Wellbeing Research Cluster (CUPHERC), Covenant University, Canaan Land, PMB 1023 Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria 

Corresponding Author: opeyemi.decampos@covenantuniversity.edu.ng; Tel: +2347062246775
Recieved Date: August 21, 2020; Accepted Date: December 15, 2020; Published Date: 02 January 2021
Citation: De Campos OC, Layole MP, Iheagwam FN, Rotimi SO, Chinedu SN. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity and Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Picralima nitida in Drosophila melanogaster. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2020; 4(12): 1147-1153.  https://doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v4i12.19
Copyright: © 2020 De Campos et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
ABSTRACT

Picralima nitida is a rainforest plant used for the treatment and management of diabetes and some other diseases in folklore medicine. In recent years, Drosophila melanogaster has served as an excellent model organism for toxicity studies of plants and also for the study of some diseases. This study focused on the antioxidant activity, phytochemical composition, and toxicity of aqueous seed extract of P. nitida in D. melanogaster. Phytochemical and antioxidant analyses of the extract were assessed using standard methods. The toxicity of the aqueous seed extract of P. nitida (APN) was also assessed, after seven days of exposure to APN (1-32 mg/mL), based on the rate of survival, locomotive performance and antioxidant effect in flies. Quantitative phytochemical analyses of APN showed the total flavonoid content to be 58.23 ± 0.79 mg quercetin equivalent/g dry weight (DW). The phenolic content was estimated to be 45.02 ± 0.27 mg gallic acid equivalent/g DW while ?-carotene and lycopene contents, were 0.039 ± 0.002 and 0.047 ± 0.001 ?g/mg, respectively. The anthocyanin content was 3.98 ± 1.28 ?g/mL of cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents. The result of the in vivo study showed that APN caused a reduction in the survival and locomotive behaviour of flies at 32 mg/mL. There was also an increase in the concentration of malondialdehyde and a reduction in the activity of acetylcholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase at high concentration of APN. The study showed that P. nitida seeds extract, despite its medicinal benefits, is toxic at high concentrations in D. melanogaster.

Keywords: Antioxidant activity, D. melanogaster, Survival rate, Locomotive behaviour, P. nitida.
Back to Articles