Pharmacognostic and Safety Assessment of Hydro-Methanol Leaf Extract of Annona muricata Linn (Annonacea) in Male Wistar Rats

Galadanchi A. Fatima1*, Salisu M. Dabai2, Abubakar Abdulazeez3, Yusuf Buhari4
1Department of Pharmacognosy and Drug Development, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
2Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University, Gusau, Nigeria
3Department of Biotechnology, Nigeria Defence Academy, Kaduna, Nigeria
4Guangzhou institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences Guangzhou, PR China  

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Recieved Date: September 11, 2020; Accepted Date: December 13, 2020; Published Date: 02 January 2021
Citation: Fatima GA, Dabai SM, Abdulazeez A, Buhari Y. Pharmacognostic and Safety Assessment of Hydro-Methanol Leaf Extract of Annona muricata Linn (Annonacea) in Male Wistar Rats. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2020; 4(12): 1182-1189.
Copyright: © 2020 Fatima et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Guyabano (Annona muricata) is a coniferous plant which belongs to Annonaceae family. The plant is used as traditional medicines in the treatment of many ailments. Some of the reported pharmacological activities of the plant are antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer and anthelmintic activities. The study was carried out to establish the pharmacognostic characters and evaluate the safety profile of hydro-methanol leaf extract of A. muricata using male wistar rats to support the use of A. muricata leaf in traditional medicine. The pharmacognostic parameters, acute and sub-chronic toxicity were evaluated by standard methods. The qualitative microscopic features display the presence of anomocytic stomata and Unicellular covering trichomes. Phytochemicals were evaluated and flavonoids, tannins, saponnins, steroids and triterpenes, alkaloids and anthraquinones were all present. The LD50 of the extract indicated that the plant extract is relatively safe with no mortality recorded at 5000mg/kg body weight of the drug. In the sub-chronic studies, the results showed no significant (P>0.05) changes in the haematological, renal and hepatic indices compared to control animals. In the second and third week, a significant (P<0.01, P<0.05) increase in body weight of the rats were observed at 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg compared to control. The study evaluated the pharmacognostic standards of A. muricata which will be useful for the compilation of a suitable monograph. The study also showed that the Hydro-methanol leaf extract of A. muricata (HMAM) is almost non-toxic following acute and sub-chronic administration.

Keywords: Annona muricata, Annonaceae, Pharmacognostic evaluation, Acute toxicity, Sub-chronic toxicity.
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