Phytochemicals and Chemical Compositions of Raw Cashew (Anarcardium occidantale) Nuts Sourced from Enugu State, South Eastern Nigeria

Chinelo C. Nkwocha1*, Nene O. Uchendu1, Angela N. Amujiri2
1Department of Biochemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
2Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria

Corresponding Author: austinelonwa@gmail.com; Tel: +234 8063482535
Recieved Date: September 18, 2020; Accepted Date: December 15, 2020; Published Date: 02 January 2021
Citation: Nkwocha CC,Uchendu ON, Amujiri NA.Phytochemicals and Chemical Compositions of Raw Cashew (Anarcardium occidantale) Nuts Sourced from Enugu State, South Eastern Nigeria.Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2020; 4(12): 1039-1044.  https://doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v4i12.3
Copyright: © 2020 Nkwocha et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
ABSTRACT

Cashew nut is one of the most beneficial nuts in the international trade.  This study evaluated the chemical and phytochemical properties of fresh cashew nuts. The determination of proximate, fatty acid, free fatty acid, trans fat, total sugar, amino acid, phytochemicals, minerals and vitamin composition of cashew nut was done using GCMS, HPLC and other standard analytical methods. The result showed carbohydrate (52.30±0.89%), protein (12.60±1.75%) crude fat (7.14±0.35%), moisture (22.49±0.35%), ash (3.53±0.49%), fibre (1.94±0.29%), free fatty acid (1.67±0.08%), total sugar (1.67±0.03%). Oleic acid (31.36±0.00%), alpha linoleic acid (12.43±0.00%), linoleic acid (16.80±0.00), eicosapentanoic acid (1.96 ±0.00%), docosatetraenoic (4.89±0.00), docohexanoic acid (1.73±0.00). Saturated fatty acid includes palmitic acid (16.08±0.00%), Myristic (11.09±0.00), lauric acid (3.63±0.00%) and an insignificant amount of trans fat. Phytochemical in highest amount was cardiac glycosides (33.840 ± 0.020%). Essential amino acid, leucine (7.079 ± 0.095 µg/100g) was the highest while methionine (1.298 ± 0.051 µg/100g) was the least. Non-essential amino acid, glutamate (7.568 ± 0.213 µg/100g) was the highest, while cysteine (1.079 ± 0.043 µg/100g) was the least. Most of these nutritional qualities are in line with the RDA intended to be used as a goal for daily intake by individuals, therefore, consumption of cashew nuts may serve as a dietary source of essential elements and should be encouraged.

Keywords: Amino acids, Cashew nuts, Fatty acids, GCMS, HPLC.
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